OPK Listening

Bu bölümde sizinle OPK Listening modülünde yer alan Note Taking ve While Listening alıştırmalarından birer örnek paylaşıyoruz.

Selective Listening – Crime

 

Sorular
  1. For an act to be regarded as a crime it has to be and ……………………………..
  2. The criminal law classifies offenses as those committed against ……………………………..

And ……………………………..

  1. Are all accidental killings regarded as murder?

……………………………..

  1. Underline the correct answer:

In case of most murders the murderer is usually a stranger /someone the victim has known.

  1. Apart from sexual desire, what motivates a rapist? Name one.

……………………………..

  1. What are the two main reasons why many rapists do not get convicted?

……………………………..

  1. With respect to prostitution, the criminal law tries to protect both …………………………….. and …………………………….. at the same time.
  2. What is the aim of criminal organizations involved in organized crime?

……………………………..

  • What activities are criminal organizations involved in to realize their goal? Name any one.

……………………………..

  1. Who may commit white-collar crime? Name one.

……………………………..

  1. Give two examples of white-collar crime mentioned in the talk.

…………………………..

  1. Why is wide-collar crime widespread?

……………………………..

Cevaplar
  1. For an act to be regarded as a crime it has to be against and punishable by criminal law.
  2. The criminal law classifies offenses as those committed against the person, the state, the community and property.
  3. Are all accidental killings regarded as murder?
  • No
  1. Underline the correct answer:
  • In case of most murders the murderer is usually a stranger /someone the victim has known.
  1. Apart from sexual desire, what motivates a rapist? Name one.
  • Aggression/the desire to humiliate the victim/the wish to exercise power over the victim
  1. What are the two main reasons why many rapists do not get convicted?
  • The victim may be reluctant/ unwilling to report the incident
  • It is difficult to prove the crime/ It is not easy to prove
  1. With respect to prostitution, the criminal law tries to protect both the prostitutes and the public at the same time.

8.

  • What is the aim of criminal organizations involved in organized crime?
  • Obtain money through illegal means/ economic and commercial gain

® What activities are criminal organizations involved in to realize their goal? Name any one.

  • Gambling / drug trafficking / loan sharking / prostitution / protection racketeering / laundering illegal money (through investment in legitimate businesses)
  1. Who may commit white-collar crime? Name one.
  • Business people/ professionals/politicians
  1. Give two examples of white-collar crime mentioned in the talk.
  • Forming illicit cartels / bribery falsifying reports
  1. Why is wide-collar crime widespread?
  • It is seldom detected
Metin

What I want to talk about today is crime. First, let’s take a look at crime in general. A crime is an action or behaviour that is against the law and is punishable by criminal law. A crime is a public wrong as opposed to a moral wrong. Of course, many crimes are immoral, but not all immoral actions or behaviour are illegal. So crime is an offence which is committed against the criminal law and hence punishable by the criminal law. So what constitutes a crime, then? The criminal laws of each country specify which actions are criminal. These include offences against the person, such as murder and rape; offences against the state, such as treason and tax evasion; offences against the community, such as littering, and offences against property, such as theft and the handling of stolen goods. Crime is socially determined; that’s why the definition of what constitutes a crime may vary geographically and over time. Thus, an action may be considered a crime in one society but not in another; for example, drinking alcohol is not a criminal offence in the West but is illegal in some Islamic countries. Or certain offences such as homosexuality and abortion used to be punishable by the criminal law but are legal today in many countries. Certain categories of crime, however, such as murder and theft, are recognised almost universally.

Today I want to talk about six types of crime, namely murder, rape, prostitution, organized crime, white-collar crime and computer crime. The first type of crime on the list is murder. Murder requires malicious intent. Therefore, murder is defined as the intentional or deliberate killing of another human being. Nowadays, however, not only intentional or deliberate killings but also accidental killings in the course of some other serious crime such as robbery or rape are regarded as murder. Other types of accidental killings, however, fall under the category of manslaughter, and are thus not regarded as murder. You will be surprised to find out that a high proportion of murders in all societies are committed spontaneously by persons who are in some way acquainted with the deceased, (i.e. the person or persons who has or have recently died), in this case murdered. Murderers are often a member of the same family or social group, and murder–follows-either-quarrels-or –provocation. The -third- page -in-tabloid newspapers is a good case in point. They are full of stories about crimes of passion, about lovers or spouses getting jealous when seeing their partners with someone of the opposite sex,

grabbing the kitchen knife and slaughtering them all. Thus, usually the convicted murderer is a person who has never committed a crime before. But accidental or not, virtually all legal systems treat murder as a crime of utmost seriousness. It is punished with a special form of sentence such as a life sentence without parole or long-term prison sentences.

One other common crime is rape. Rape is a form of sexual assault. To be more precise, rape is to force someone to have sex against their will. Rape can happen to both men and women and virtually anybody can be the rapist: a man, a woman, a stranger, a relative, an acquaintance or a lover. The motivation of the rapist is pretty complex. Contrary to popular belief, the rapist IS not really motivated by sexual desire. Rather than sexual desire, the rapist is more likely to be motivated by aggression and by the desire to humiliate the victim in one way or other. In short, rape is a sexual act of violence/Unfortunately, a high proportion of rapists escape conviction for a variety of reasons. One reason might be that rape victims are reluctant to report the incident. Many victims are unwilling to admit that they have been raped because they fear hostile treatment. Most rape victims think, and sometimes for good reasons, that the community or the investigating authorities such as the police or defense lawyers at court will treat them badly for what happened to them. This is natural to a certain extent because being raped is physically and psychologically a traumatic experience and victims usually feel that people blame them for the act Another reason why many rape incidences go unreported is the difficulty of proving tire crime. Rape is usually not easy to prove because there are rarely any witnesses. All the same, most systems of criminal taw treat rape as a serious crime, and 95% of those convicted of rape are sentenced to imprisonment.

The next type of crime we are going to take a look at is prostitution. Prostitution is generally defined as the provision of sexual services for money. The laws regulating prostitution vary greatly from one country to. another. In some countries, the act of prostitution is not illegal in itself, but many activities associated with it axe unlawful. This is because the law tries to safeguard the rights of both the prostitutes and the public. In other words, in countries where prostitution is allowed, the criminal law shares two main policy considerations: the protection of prostitutes from exploitation by third parties and the protection of the -public from the adverse effects of prostitution.

All of the crimes we have mentioned so far are usually concerned with personal relations between individuals, but there are other forms of crime, notably organized crime, and white-collar crime, which usually involve a greater network of groups of people. Obviously, organized crime includes criminal organizations which plan and commit crime. Interpol (an organization involving the police forces of more than 100 countries whose main activity is- fighting international crime) defines organized crime as “any group having a corporate structure whose primary objective is to obtain money through illegal activities, often surviving on fear and corruption.” To put it in other words, organized crime groups have the structure of a corporation, i.e. they function within units where there is an established division of labour and, their primary goal is economic and commercial gain. This is achieved not only from illegal activities such as gambling, drug trafficking, loan sharking, prostitution and protection racketeering but also from such activities as laundering illegal money through investment in legitimate business; and they commit or threaten to commit acts of intimidation and violence. Any illegal activity we attribute to the so-called mafia are examples of organized crime. Most organized crime activities are now part of international networks of crime and governments need to cooperate to crack them down.

The type of crime that is widespread but not easily pinpointed is white-collar crime or economic crime. The designation white-collar crime refers to violations of law by persons who use their jobs to engage in illegal activities. Crimes committed by business people, professionals and politicians are known as white-collar crimes. There are different kinds of white-collar crime. One most common white-collar crime is forming illicit cartels. This means that certain corporations conspire with one another in order to fix prices of goods and services. By regulating the prices of the same type of goods or of a particular service, cartels can make artificially high profits or they can drive a rival corporation out of the market. Another way could be by bribing officials. Police, for example, take bribes from organized crime groups and thus turn a blind eye to their illegal activities. Falsifying reports is also a form of white-collar crime. It is not uncommon practice, for example, that administrators invent bills for services not provided and goods not purchased. White-collar crime is very common and it is one of the costliest crimes in society. The problem is, however, that white- collar crimes are seldom detected, and crimes that are not detected hardly end up at criminal courts. Billions of dollars-a year disappear through various kinds-of swindles – far more than in the more conventional crimes of burglary, forgery, auto theft and robbery:

Now, the type of crime which is directly related to advances in technology is computer crime. As computer use expands to many different aspects of our lives, so does the potential for the computer to be used illegally. Computer crime involves illegal activities carried out on or by means of a computer. Today virtually every crime that a person can commit has the potential of involving a computer. Computers can be either the tool or the target of criminal activity. When the computer is the tool in an offence, it is used by the criminal to facilitate or enable the criminal activity. Examples in this category include using a computer to create fraudulent documents, to accomplish currency theft, to distribute child pornography and to facilitate crime – related networking. When the computer becomes the target of criminal activity, the offender is usually a computer hacker. Computer hackers illegally gain access to a computer network, and they commit such crimes as data alteration, sabotage of computer software or hardware, data theft and computer virus implantation. Computer crime is definitely on the rise and the challenge to combat crime in the electronic world is great.

Careful Listening – Gender & Communication

Bu derste Gender & Communication üzerinde bir parça dinliyoruz. İlk önce dinleyip daha sonra soruları göreceksiniz. Dinleyip, not alıp, soruları cevapladıktan sonra dinleme parçasının metnini baştan sona bir reading gibi okuyup analiz edin.

Sorular
  1. Define gender.
  2. What does communication between men and women depend on? Name one.
  3. Children learn to communicate from their …………………….
  4. How do boys achieve higher status when playing or interacting with each other?
  5. Compare and contrast the communication patterns in boys' games and girls' games.
  6. How does the structure of the girl's game house differ from the structure of other girl's games like hopscotch and jump rope?
  7. According to Tannin, men's shortest speeches were ……………… than women's longest speeches in public settings.
  1. Explain how culture may label men and women in terms of communication.
  2. Why do researchers study the effects of gender on communication?
Cevaplar
  1. Define gender.
  • The social identity that men and women learn as they grow up in a culture/the social Condition of being male or female
  1. What does communication between men and women depend on? Name one.
  • The situation the speakers find themselves in/ the reasons why they are communicating with other people
  1. Children learn to communicate from their parents and peers.
  2. How do boys achieve higher status when playing or interacting with each other?
  • By becoming the leader of their group
  • By taking the center stage
  1. Compare and contrast the communication patterns in boys' games and girls' games.
  • Bovs play outside in large hierarchical groups/girls play at home in small groups or pairs (not large groups) / bovs have winners and losers/ no winners or losers in girls games/there is a leader giving orders in boys' games/girls make suggestions
  1. How does the structure of the girl's game house differ from the structure of other girl's games like hopscotch and jump rope?
  • The girl who plavs the mother gives orders to the girls who play the children
  1. According to Tannin, men's shortest speeches were longer than women's longest speeches in public settings.
  2. Explain how culture may label men and women in terms of communication.
  • If women want to be feminine, they are expected to be quiet and are labeled talkative or criticized for interrupting if they do. whereas men are encouraged to dominate the taik or interrupt more often. This is due to their masculine culture.
  1. Why do researchers study the effects of gender on communication?
  • To understand why misunderstandings occur between men and women in conversation
Metni Göster

In this lecture, I'll talk about a variable that affects human communication. That variable is gender. Gender is the social identity that men and women learn as they grow up in a culture. In other words, gender is the social (and, of course physical) condition of being male or female. For example, boys learn to be “masculine” and girls learn to be “feminine” as they grow to be men and women. Researchers have shown that men and women communicate in quite different ways and in different amounts. They say that the gender patterns in communication depend largely on 1. the situation the speakers find themselves in, and 2. the reasons they are communicating with other people.

Many cultures actually encourage men and women to talk differently and in different amounts, and these patterns for communicating are learned when men and women are very young. Children learn how to talk to other children or adults, and how to have conversations, not only from their parents but also from their peers. In her best-selling book You Just Don't Understand, Deborah Tannen points out that although boys and girls often play together, they spend most of their time playing in same-sex groups. She also points out that boys and girls do play some games together, but their favorite games are very often quite different. Tannen and other researchers on this topic have found that young boys, say between ages 8 and 12, tend to play outside the house rather than in the house, and they play in large, groups that are hierarchically structured. The group of boys generally has a leader who tells the other boys what to do and how

to do it. Becoming a leader of a group is an important step in achieving a higher status in a group. The leader gives orders and makes the other boys play by the rules because he has a higher or more dominant status in the playgroup. Boys also achieve status by taking “center stage.” They take center stage by talking a lot; they give orders and commands; they tell a lot of stories and jokes. They command attention by dominating conversations and by interrupting other boys who are speaking. The researchers also found that boys' games often have clear winners and losers and elaborate systems of rules.

Researchers, on the other hand, found that girls play different kinds of games and abide by different rules when playing their games. In addition, girls in groups use different patterns of communication and different styles of communication when playing together. Tannen and her colleagues have found that young girls often play in small groups or in pairs. They play less often in large groups or teams outside the home. Girls' play is not so hierarchically ordered as boys' play is. In their most frequent games, like hopscotch and jump rope, every girl gets a chance to play. In many of their play activities, such as playing house, there are no “winners” or “losers.” Researchers also found that girls usually don't give many direct orders or commands to their playmates; they express their preferences as suggestions. Girls often say to their playmates, “Let's do this … or that.” Boys, on the other hand, are more direct in ordering their playmates to do this or that. Tannen is quick to point out that boys as well as girls want to get their own way, and want other children to do what they want them to do; however, the boys and girls try to get their playmates to do what they want them to do in different ways-. Another researcher, compared boys and girls engaged in two task-oriented activities. The boys were making slingshots in preparation for a fight. The girls were making jewelry; they were making rings for their fingers. She noted that the boys' activity group was hierarchically arranged. The “leader” told the other boys what to do and how to do it. The girls making the jewelry were more egalitarian. Everyone made suggestions about how to make the jewelry, and the girls tended to listen and accept the. suggestions of the other girls in the group.

Tannen and her colleagues are not suggesting that girls never engage in some of the communication and management behaviors boys engage in. In fact, in another study, they found that when girls play house, the girl who plays the mother gives orders to the girls who play the

children. But, girls seem to give orders to their peers less often than boys do when they play. The girls are practicing parent-child relationships in the game of playing house. It's very likely that when little boys play their games, they are also practicing the masculine roles they're expected to assume when they grow up.

As a result of our cultural upbringing, we learn norms of behavior and patterns of communication that are often gender-based, and sometimes gender-biased. We also develop stereotypes about how and how much males and females should communicate. However, research has shown that many of these stereotypes actually turn out to be quite wrong.

One of the most common stereotypes that many people hold is the idea that women talk a lot, perhaps too much, and that they are always interrupting or trying to get “center stage” when someone else is talking. Actually, recent research on the influence of gender on communication has shown the exact opposite to be true in many instances.

Researchers have found that men usually produce more talk and are more likely to interrupt another speaker than women do. This particularly takes place in public settings, such as business meetings. So although women are believed to talk more than men, study after study has shown that it is men who talk more. And this finding holds even for communicative interactions between very educated and successful professional men and women, such as professors, for example. Deborah Tannen, in her book You Just Don't Understand, cites a study of university faculty meetings. It was found that, with one exception, men professors spoke more often and, without exception, for a longer period of time than the women professors did. The men took center stage and talked from 10.66 seconds to 17.07 seconds, while the women talked from 3 to 10 seconds, on the average. Tannen points out that the women's longest speeches were still shorter, than the men's shortest speeches.

Perhaps it is our social concept of what is feminine and what is masculine that reinforces the stereotype that women talk more than men, and even causes these different patterns of communication. Maybe a woman is labeled talkative or is criticized for interrupting if she does these things at all, because our culture teaches that women should be quiet if they want to be

“feminine.” Perhaps masculine culture encourages boys and men to dominate talk and to interrupt more often, and males who talk a lot and interrupt often are not criticized for doing so. These differences in the patterns of communication and styles of communicating are studied by researchers who study the effects of gender on communication. They study these effects in order to understand why misunderstandings occur between men and women in conversation. Often, misunderstandings occur between men and women occur in conversation because their styles and patterns of conversation are so different. And, that’s why it is vital to learn to recognize these gender differences in the styles and patterns of conversation. Once we are aware of such differences, we can learn to communicate better with people of the other gender.

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